Friday, May 22, 2020

Clerestory Windows in Architectural Design

A clerestory window is a large window or series of small windows along the top of a structures wall, usually at or near the roof line. Clerestory windows are a type of fenestration or glass window placement found in both residential and commercial construction. A clerestory wall often rises above adjoining roofs. In a large building, like a gymnasium or train station, the windows will be positioned to allow light to illuminate a large interior space. A smaller home may have a band of narrow windows along the very top of a wall. Originally, the word clerestory (pronounced CLEAR-story) referred to the upper level of a church or cathedral. The Middle English word clerestorie means clear story, which describes how an entire story of height was cleared to bring natural light to sizable interiors. Designing With Clerestory Windows Designers who wish to maintain wall space and interior privacy AND keep a room well-lighted often use this type of window arrangement for both residential and commercial projects. It is one way to use architectural design to help your home out of the darkness. Clerestory windows are most often used to naturally illuminate (and often ventilate) large spaces such as sports arenas, transportation terminals, and gymnasiums. As modern sports stadiums and arenas became enclosed, with and without retractable roofing systems, the clerestory lens, as its called on the 2009 Cowboys Stadium, became more common. Early Christian Byzantine architecture featured this type of fenestration to shed overhead light into the massive spaces builders were beginning to construct. Romanesque- era designs expanded the technique as medieval basilicas achieved more grandeur from height. The architects of Gothic-era cathedrals made clerestories an art form. Some say it was  American architect Frank Lloyd Wright (1867-1959) who adapted that Gothic art form to residential architecture. Wright was an early promoter of natural light and ventilation, no doubt in response to working in the Chicago area during the height of Americas industrialization. By 1893 Wright had his prototype for the Prairie Style in the Winslow House, showing second-story windows under the enormous eave overhang. By 1908 Wright was still struggling with a perfectly beautiful design when he wrote: ...often I used to gloat over the beautiful buildings I could build if only it were unnecessary to cut holes in them.... The holes, of course, are the windows and doors. By the time Wright was marketing his Usonian homes, the clerestory windows had become an important part of both the interior design, as seen in the 1939 Rosenbaum house in Alabama, and the exterior design, as in the 1950 Zimmerman House in New Hampshire. The best way to light a house is Gods way — the natural way.... Wright wrote  in The Natural House, a 1954 classic book on American architecture. The best natural way, according to Wright, is to place the clerestory along the southern exposure of the structure. The clerestory window serves as a lantern to the house. More Definitions of Clerestory or Clearstory 1. An upper zone of wall pierced with windows that admit light to the center of a lofty room. 2. A window so placed. — Dictionary of Architecture and Construction The topmost windows of a church nave, those above the aisle roof, thus any high band of windows — G. E. Kidder Smith, FAIA A series of windows placed high on a wall. Evolved from the Gothic churches where the clerestory appeared above the aisle roofs. — John Milnes Baker, AIA Architectural Examples of Clerestory Windows Clerestory windows illuminate many of Frank Lloyd Wright-designed interior spaces, especially the Usonian home designs, including the Zimmerman House and the Toufic Kalil Home. In addition to adding clerestory windows to residential structures, Wright also used rows of glass in more traditional settings, such as his Unity Temple, Annunciation Greek Orthodox, and the original library, the Buckner Building, on the campus of Florida Southern College in Lakeland. For Wright, the clerestory window was a design choice that satisfied his aesthetic and philosophic ideals. Clerestory windows have become a mainstay of modern residential architecture. From the 1922 Schindler Chace house designed by the Austrian-born R. M. Schindler to the student designs of the Solar Decathlon competition, this type of fenestration is a popular and practical choice. Remember that this new way of design is centuries old. Look up at the great sacred places across the world. Heavenly light becomes part of the prayerful experience in synagogues, cathedrals, and mosques throughout the ages, from Byzantine to Gothic to Modern structures like architect Alvar Altos 1978 Church of the Assumption of Mary in Riola di Vergato,  Italy. As the world became industrialized, natural light from clerestory windows supplemented the gas and electric lighting of venues such as Grand Central Terminal in New York City. For a more modern transportation hub in Lower Manhattan, Spanish architect Santiago Calatrava returned to ancient architectural history, incorporating a modern oculus — a version of Romes Pantheon extreme clerestory — showing again that whats old is always new. A Selection of Clerestory Window Examples Dance Studio, Preserving Wall SpaceTurner Contemporary Gallery, David Chipperfield Architects, United KingdomKitchen, 1922 Schindler House, Los Angeles, CaliforniaKarl Kundert Medical Clinic, Frank Lloyd Wright, 1956, San Luis Obispo, CaliforniaGothic Exeter Cathedral, United KingdomItalian Byzantine Church of Saint Vitale in Ravenna, ItalySunlight Shining Into Grand Central Terminal, New York City Sources Frank Lloyd Wright On Architecture: Selected Writings (1894-1940), Frederick Gutheim, ed., Grossets Universal Library, 1941, p. 38Dictionary of Architecture and Construction, Cyril M. Harris, ed., McGraw- Hill, 1975, p. 108G. E. Kidder Smith, FAIA, Sourcebook of American Architecture, Princeton Architectural Press, 1996, p. 644.John Milnes Baker, AIA, American House Styles: A Concise Guide, Norton, 1994, p. 169Additional photo credits: Cowboy Stadium, Ronald Martinez/Getty Images (cropped); Winslow House, Raymond Boyd/ Getty Images (cropped); Alto Church, De Agostini/Getty Images (cropped); Zimmerman House, Jackie Craven

Thursday, May 7, 2020

Childhood Sexual Abuse Is A Significant Issue - 3180 Words

Abstract Childhood sexual abuse is a significant issue children face in our society that has long term consequences. Sexual abuse in any form is a traumatizing experience regardless of age, but sibling sexual abuse is believed to be more common than parent-child incest. This form of abuse has long term effects such as lack of self-esteem, poor leadership qualities, developing an eating disorder, substance abuse, suffering from depression and/or suicidal behavior. Society often minimizes sibling sexual abuse the long term effects it has. For example, possessing leadership skills like strategic thinking, motivating others, being charismatic, and assertiveness are important aspects of everyday life not only for work environments, but school†¦show more content†¦SSA is also thought to be the most traumatic form of child sexual abuse because it typically involves a longer duration of abuse. â€Å"The duration of the abuse, the use of force and the negative outcomes for women sexually ab used by their brothers are equally or more severe than those for women abused by their fathers† (Tapara, 2012). SSA can be considered more pervasive than any other form of sexual abuse for the following reasons (1) the secrecy and minimization of the abuse, (2) the broken familial connection with the offender, and (3) the interruption of developmental stages and diminished social network. Therefore, there is a tremendous need for research related to prevalence and consequences of SSA, so that mental health professionals can gain a comprehensive understanding of how to help the survivors of SSA and triggers for the perpetrators to help prevent future cases of SSA. This exploratory qualitative study will use the following definition of SSA â€Å"sexual behavior between siblings that is not age appropriate, not transitory and not motivated by developmentally appropriate curiosity† (Morrill, 2014). This behavior includes non-contact abuse such as indecent exposure, being forced to watch pornography, or being forced to watch a sibling during masturbation, as well as contact abuse like fondling, groping, oral sex, anal sex, and direct penetration. Often reports of SSA are

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Acquisition of a new piece of equipment for coca-cola Free Essays

Coco-Cola has plans of acquiring a new piece of equipment. The company is likely to get funding problems under the following scenarios Risk Coca Cola would run a financial risk problem depending on which source of finance they contemplate to use in financing this new project. A firm either utilizes its internally generated resources or borrows from outside. We will write a custom essay sample on Acquisition of a new piece of equipment for coca-cola or any similar topic only for you Order Now However, the internal sources especially the retained earnings may be insufficient compelling Coca Cola to borrow by issuing either debentures or preference shares. Such external sources of finance give rise to fixed interest charges, lead to financial riskness that may force Coca Cola to be bankrupt. (Bower, 1990) Cost This new project is a capital investment and by their nature, capital investments involve high initial cash outleys. (www.teachmefinance.com/capitalbudgeting.html).   In addition to the initial cost, Coca- Cola would also incur huge incidental costs related with the installing of this new equipment these include labor and carriage costs. More other funds would be incurred in employee training   on its usage . Coca Cola however would have to look into ways and means of getting   additional funds which are essential in   meeting   these costs. Politics Some board members of the decision-making organ of Coca Cola may not be comfortable with this investment plan and therefore may not pass it. The end result of this decision would be that the funds may be channeled to other projects. This is because Capital projects by their nature, need prioritization be done since there may be   insufficient funds of   financing   all the   viable projects that the company might have passed. Economical Factors The budgeted funds to fund this new project might be insufficient due to government changes on the taxation policies and any other legislation that may be inherent within the government system. Cost and benefit estimates It is estimated that the new equipment would generate the following after-tax cashflows: Year  Ã‚  Ã‚     before tax cash flows 1.  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   (10,000) 2.  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   1000 3.  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   2500 4.  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   3000 4.  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   4000 5   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  7000 8  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   7000 9  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   5000 10  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   4500 Tax@30% Net cash flows 16,800 The initial investment is $10000 (www. Swlearning.com/finances/students/capitalbgt.htm) REFERENCES Joseph L Bower, Managing the Resource Allocation Process, Harvard Business School Press, 1990. How to cite Acquisition of a new piece of equipment for coca-cola, Essay examples

Monday, April 27, 2020

Quinn On Heart Of Darkness Essays - Ishmael, Heart Of Darkness

Quinn On Heart Of Darkness Quinn on Heart of Darkness We cannot read Quinn's Ishmael without re-evaluating ourselves. Quinn confronts us with powerful revelations about mankind. According to Quinn, if we continue to live in our taker lifestyles, we will eventually destroy ourselves. Conrad's Heart of Darkness illustrates a real life manifestation of Quinn's insights. Written nearly a century ago, Conrad's tale of early English imperialistic taker lifestyle still resembles present day taker lifestyle. We still try to rule other lands and people. We still have the attitude that everything centers on man. We still exhaust Earth's resources and kill its creations. Above all, we still do all this with ignorance. With Ishmael as a guide, we can better understand how Conrad's more intricate story critiques taker lifestyle. Laying out the major issues in Ishmael will reveal insight to the imagery and symbolism in Heart of Darkness. Quinn states that man believes that the leaver community to be ?a place of lawless chaos and savage, relentless competition, where every creature goes in terror of its life? (Quinn 117). Not until takers conquer these places of ?lawless chaos? can these lands be ?paradise for man? (222). Until then, these lands and its inhabitants are wrenched and in the wrong. Conrad establishes this mentality at the beginning of Heart of Darkness. We are instantly aware of the imagery of dark and light. Traditionally, dark represents evil and light represents good. Conrad begins with associating savagery with darkness and civilization with light. Conrad's protagonist, Marlow, explains his version of the origin of England. He asserts to his shipmates, ?[W]hen the Romans first came here, nineteen hundred years ago? Light came out of this river [Thames] since?. But darkness was here yesterday? (Conrad 3). Takers demand that everyone and everything must be civilized. To takers, ?civilize? means living by their beliefs and their lifestyle. Like gods, takers believe ?they know what is right and what is wrong to do, and what they're doing is right? (Quinn 167). Everything and everyone is to live the taker lifestyle because that lifestyle is the right way to live. Oddly enough, the taker culture actually performs the exact opposite results from what it attempts to accomplish. As Ishmael preaches, ?everything was in good order. It was the Takers who introduced disorder into the world? (146). When man thought he was not exempt from the laws of nature, he and everything was fine. When man decided that he was exempt from the laws of nature, he introduced chaos. Ishmael indicates to his pupil that takers do not wish to realize their destructive ways. To them, ignorance is bliss. If takers actually gave up their lifestyle, ?it would mean that all along they'd been wrong. It would mean that they never known how to rule the world. It would mean?relinquishing their pretensions to godhood? (Quinn 168). Takers' ignorance is evident in Heart of Darkness. When Marlow visits Kurtz's fianc?e, she is still in mourning over Kurtz. She has been dressed for mourning for over a year. And yet, her devotion is not actually to Kurtz himself, but rather to his image. She is wholly devoted to the seemingly noble purpose of Kurtz's mission to Africa. Like takers, she desires to believe in the greatness of men like Kurtz and their ideas without realizing that it is wrong and harmful. Her loyalty to his image is so dedicated that Marlow must lie to her. Marlow does not admit that Kurtz deserted his ideas of civilizing the African culture and that his last words we re ?The horror! The horror!? Instead, he tells her that Kurtz's last words were her name. The only purpose this serves is letting her cling to her false impressions, strengthening the belief that takers are right. Another example of this blindness is visible in the imagery of Kurtz's painting. Marlow sees the painting on the wall of the Brickmaker's room. It depicts a woman blindfolded, carrying a lighted torch. Traditionally, we think of such an image as representing justice or liberty. Kurtz's painting is deceiving. She exemplifies the Company, willingly blinds itself to the horrors of its destruction in the name of civilizing. Ishmael points out that the only way to end the vicious

Thursday, March 19, 2020

10 Page Term Paper

10 Page Term Paper 10 Page Term Paper 10 Page Term Paper If you are writing a 10 page term paper, you must pay special attention to the quality of information and structure. In particular, you should use headings and subheadings to ensure a better flow of ideas. is a professional and legal site offering custom term paper writing help to students who care about their grades but have no time to write term papers. In addition, we have an absolutely free paper writing blog with numerous tips on writing and pre-written sample term papers. Sample Term Paper on Baby Boom A necessary step in scientific speculation is to specify precisely what is to be explained. At the demographic level, we have explained the baby boom mainly as an increase in the proportion of women having at least two children accompanied by a compression of fertility into a shorter, earlier period of time. (Another way of describing the same phenomenon is in terms of a significant decline in the average age of childbearing.) Being married and having a family (though not a large family) had become the norm during the decade after the war. Bachelorhood, childlessness and having only one child became increasingly unusual. What kinds of social change occurred during this period that might help explain this trend? One persuasive theory proposed by economist Richard Easterlin is that the postwar period witnessed a combination of two basic forces which encouraged optimism and relaxed earlier constraints on marriage and having children: an unprecedented demand for goods and services otherwise known as the postwar economic boom; and an accompanying shortage of labor. This shortage was caused by low birthrates in the twenties and early thirties which reduced the number of job seekers two decades or more later. In former periods, this demand for labor was met by immigration but the restrictive legislation of the twenties had effectively dried up this source of labor. Thus young people in the early 1950's were relatively few in number and were faced with many well-paying job opportunities in a rapidly expanding economy a particularly propitious set of circumstances for encouraging the formation of families. Other factors also contributed to what appeared to be a headlong rush into marriage and childbearing. Credit for home purchases and other consumer goods became widely available. With little investment and long amortization schedules it became possible for masses of people to satisfy home ownership aspirations, to escape the city and to have a better place for the kids to grow up. With little or no down payment required, suburban developments mushroomed and young couples with young children moved in, their homogeneous concentrations undoubtedly reinforcing the norm of fertility. Pregnancy and motherhood no longer signified a withdrawal from social life; on the contrary, pregnancy seemed almost fashionable at the time. In the new child-centered suburban life separated physically and psychologically from the work environment -childlessness was the deviant form of behavior. The pressures for conformity were such that sterility was probably a more socially acceptable justification of chi ldlessness than lack of interest in children. Term Paper Custom Writing If you need professional help with 10 page term paper writing, do not hesitate to use our custom term paper writing assistance at any time. We are open 24/7 and guarantee timely delivery. Our term paper writers are educated and you will be satisfied with the quality level!

Monday, March 2, 2020

Reasons Behind the Case for School Choice

Reasons Behind the Case for School Choice When it comes to education, conservatives believe that American families should have the flexibility and the right to a variety of school options for their children. The public education system in the United States is both expensive and under-performing. Conservatives believe that the public education system as it exists today should be an option of last resort, not a first and only choice. A majority of Americans believe that the education system is broken. Liberals say that more (and more and more) money is the answer. But conservatives argue that school choice is the answer. Public support for educational options is strong, but powerful liberal special interests have effectively limited the options many families have. School Choice Shouldn't be Just for the Wealthy Educational options should not only exist for the well-connected and wealthy. While President Obama opposes school choice and props up the education-affiliated labor unions, he sends his own children to a school that costs $30,000 per year. Though Obama likes to portray himself as having come from nothing, he attended the elite college prep Punahou School in Hawaii, which today costs almost $20,000 per year to attend. And Michelle Obama? She attended the also-elite Whitney M. Young Magnet High school. While the school is run by the city, it is not a typical high school and it closely resembles the way a charter school would operate. The school accepts less than 5% of applicants, highlighting the need and desire for such options. Conservatives believe that every child should have the educational opportunities that the entire Obama family has enjoyed. School choice should not be limited to the 1%, and the people who oppose school choice should at least send their kids to the school th ey want the regular folks to attend. Private and Charter Schools School choice would allow families to choose from a number of educational options. If they are happy with the education that the government provides, and admittedly some public schools are excellent, then they can remain. The second option would be a charter school. A charter school does not charge tuition and it survives off of public funds, however, it operates independently from the public education system. Charter schools offer unique educational opportunities but they are still held accountable for success. Unlike with the public education system, a failing charter school will not remain open. A third main option is private schooling. Private schools can range from elite prep schools to religiously-affiliated schools. Unlike with the public school system or charter schools, private schools do not run on public funds. Typically, expenses are met by charging tuition to cover part of the cost, and reliance on a pool of private donors. Currently, private schools are the least accessible to lower-income families, despite the per-pupil cost to attend typically being less than both the public school and charter school systems. Conservatives favor opening up the voucher system to these schools as well. Other educational opportunities are also supported, such as home-schooling and distance learning. A Voucher System Conservatives believe that a voucher system would be the most effective and efficient way to deliver school choice to millions of children. Not only would vouchers empower families to find the best fit for their children, but it saves taxpayers money as well. Currently, the per-pupil cost of public education is close to $11,000 across the nation. (And how many parents would say they believe their child gets an $11,000 per year education?) A voucher system would let parents use some of that money and apply it to a private or charter school of their choosing. Not only does the student get to attend a school that is a good educational fit, but charter and private schools are typically far less expensive, thus saving the taxpayers thousands of dollars every time a student leaves the status quo educational system in favor of a parent-chosen school. The Obstacle: Teacher's Unions The biggest (and perhaps only) obstacle to school choice is the powerful teachers unions who oppose any attempts to expand educational opportunities. Their position is certainly understandable. If school choice were to be embraced by politicians, how many parents would choose the government-run option? How many parents would not shop around for the best fit for their children? School choice and a publicly-supported voucher system would inevitably lead to a mass exodus of students from the public school system, thus endangering the currently competition-free atmosphere that teachers currently enjoy. It is also true that, on average, charter and private school teachers do not enjoy the salaries and benefits that their public counterparts do. This is a reality of operating in the real world where budgets and standards exist. But it would be unfair to say that lower salaries equal lower quality teachers. Its a valid argument that charter and private school teachers are more likely to teach for the love of teaching, rather than for money and benefits offered as a government employee. Competition Could Improve Public Schools and Teacher Quality It is likely true, similarly to how capitalism promotes private programs and diminishes public programs, a competitive private school system would require fewer public educators, but it would not mean a wholesale firing of public school teachers. Implementing these school choice programs would take years, and much of the reduction in the public teacher force would be handled through attrition (the retirement of current teachers and not replacing them). But this could be a good thing for the public education system. First, the hiring of new public school teachers would become more selective, thus increasing the quality of public school teachers. Also, more education funds would be freed up because of the voucher system, which costs thousands less per-pupil. Assuming this money is kept in the public education system, it would mean that struggling public schools could financially benefit as funds become more available.

Saturday, February 15, 2020

Lab 5 Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

Lab 5 - Assignment Example For the debt collectors, it is revealed that they earn commissions based on the amounts they collect. Consequently, the debt collectors has been employing underhand tactics, harassment and even breaking the law, to accomplish desired targets. Some of the debt collectors have even resulted to using coercion and force in the pursuit of collecting amounts due. Some agencies have even resulted to breaking and entering personal property to recover debts due. The subsequent episodes show how a portion of the population is taking advantage of people in credit card debt through fraudulent means. Additionally, it is later revealed that credit companies, may actually be lying regarding credit card debt, repayment plans and interest rates. The credit card firms have also began selling accounts of customers in debt to collection agencies, which is illegal. That last two episodes are more advisory and reflective. They place emphasis on the fact that, in yester years, American citizens did not accrue so much date. In the last episode, viewers are advised against falling into the trap of credit card debt and for those already in debt, they should be vigilant. Indeed, credit card debt is termed as the next big crisis in America. 2) Caveat emptor is a legal principle that confers to the buyer, the responsibility of ensuring that the good/service bought, is operational and in good condition. In the legal and business sense, the credit card companies were not liable since, the parties were competent. Moreover, the credit card companies acted in good faith, since the economy was booming and they could not foretell the financial crisis (Andrews 2011). 6) As a judge, I would rule against the 30 year old because his history suggest he is mentally competent. Furthermore, the primary reason for his inability to repay the debt is financial irresponsibility and the credit crunch. 8) (A) I think